Oxytocin Receptors

Para-nitrophenylphosphate (PNPP) produces chromogenic para-nitrophenol (PNP), which can be optically detected at 405 nm

Para-nitrophenylphosphate (PNPP) produces chromogenic para-nitrophenol (PNP), which can be optically detected at 405 nm. between ?0.1 to 0.3 V. The linear ranges have been decided to be 5C1000 U/mL and 5C1000 U/mL for the optical and electrochemical immunoassays, respectively. The limit of detection of the optical immunoassay is usually 1.3 U/mL and 40 U/mL for the optical and electrochemical methods, respectively. 1. Introduction Cancer takes 7.6 million lives worldwide every year.1 In the US, about 20,000 women are diagnosed with ovarian cancer (OC) annually, 14,436 women lost their lives to this disease in 2009 2009.2 In women, ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer death in the US compared with breast, colorectal, and pancreatic cancers.3 Globally, 225,500 in the world wide are affected with ovarian cancer, more than half of whom pass away every year.4 OC is AST-1306 a disease of the ovaries that does not present specific symptoms at the early onset of the disease. Its symptoms are vague until it is at a later stage at which time it has AST-1306 spread in organs beyond the ovaries. OC can be classified according to the origin of the abnormal cells within the ovarian tissue of which, 90% of new cases are diagnosed as epithelial carcinoma.5 In the advanced stage, abdominal pain, bloating, difficulty eating, and constipation are common symptoms which are not specific enough to identify ovarian cancer.6 Only at a later stage when symptoms such as vaginal bleeding, weight gain or weight loss, urinary frequency and/or urgency, nausea, and vomiting necessitates various scans for diagnosis. But at a AST-1306 late stage, survival rates are very low, making OC a Silent Killer.7 When symptoms begin to show positive indications of OC, diagnosis aside from pelvic examination such as computed tomography, transvaginal ultrasound, or MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) of the stomach are among the tests that are used for detection in the ovary and its possible spread outside the pelvic area.8 Confirmation of the disease stage is carried out with colonoscopy, laparoscopy and biopsy are invasive and uncomfortable.9 Alternatively, protein based assays are choices of tests for cancer detection and monitoring using serum, blood, or urine samples.10 However, reports indicate that genetic and epigenetic changes have been observed in the different types and stages of OC.11 One of the most commonly used protein assays that serves as initial testing for various types of cancers including ovarian cancer is based on the serum levels of CA125 cancer antigen which was described by Bast et al.12 This protein is a glycoprotein that can be detected using monoclonal antibody, anti-CA125. It has been established that this levels of CA125 are elevated in the serum of more than 80C85% of women with epithelial ovarian cancer, but only in 50% of patients in the early stages of OC.13 Once the CA125 assay is positive, the level of disease malignancy is confirmed with a number of subsequent assessments. The biomarker CA125 is usually a very important tumor marker with normal levels at 35 U/mL.14 This level is elevate in the advance-stage of ovarian cancer and in malignancies such as colon, breast, pancreas, pericardium, and other epithelial cell diseases.15,16 Today, screening of ovarian cancer using CA125 is carried out in combination AST-1306 with physical examination.17,18 Its early detection is important to achieve effective OC diagnosis in order that treatment regimen can be initiated at the onset of the disease.19 Herein sensitive, AST-1306 reliable, and rapid dual transduction methods have been developed for detection of low levels of CA125 that indicate early-stage OC. A sandwich-type enzyme linked immunoassays (ELISA) on a 96-well plate with optical and electrochemical methods of signal transduction was developed, as shown in Fig. 1. The assay was carried out on a high binding surface that was used to immobilize the capture antibody and to build the sandwich assay. The enzyme label was alkaline phosphatase (AP) that catalyzed the hydrolysis of orthophosphoric monoesters, para aminophenyl phosphate (PAPP) or para nitrophenyl phosphate (PNPP), Rabbit Polyclonal to GPRC6A releasing a substrate, em virtude de amino phenol (PAP) or paranitrophenol (PNP), which has optical and electrochemical properties, respectively.20 Open up in another window Fig. 1 Schematic from the sandwich immunoassay for CA125. (mAb-capture antibody; Ab-AP- alkaline phosphatase tagged recognition antibody; antigen-CA125) Experimental.

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